In 1930, Shaykh Muhammad Bashuni b. ‘Imran a prominent ālim in Sambas, West Borneo, wrote to al-Manār requesting Rashid Rida to ask Shakib Arslan, Rida’s reformist colleague, to answer his queries on two important issues. First, why are the Muslims, especially those in the Malay-Indonesian world in a state of weakness and decline? Second, why are other non-Muslim nations advanced, and is it possible for Muslims to emulate their model of advancement without compromising their religious principles? Indeed, Bashuni’s description of the ummah in the first half of the twentieth century remains true until today. This blog will not examine this issue, rather, it serves as an additional resource for my Muslim Nations class. Feel free to give comments and ask questions.

Regards,

Hafiz

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